Rotation is now rarely used to describe cropping systems as flexibility is the key to success. Changes in crop choice can be made at sowing time based on several factors.
Segregations which account for the majority of the Victorian harvest are Australian Hard 1 (minimum protein 13.0%), Hard 2 (minimum protein 11.5%), Australian Premium White 1 (minimum protein 10.5%) and Australian Standard White (No minimum protein). Special categories of segregations are Australian Noodle, Australian Soft 1 and Australian Feed. Varieties not meeting the specifications of these segregations will be received as Australian General Purpose.
The advice provided in this publication is intended as a source of information only. Always read the label before using any of the products mentioned. The State of Victoria and its employees do not guarantee that the publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication
Deep sowing may delay or stifle emergence, while shallow sowing risks seed damage from herbicide uptake. The length of the first shoot (coleoptile) has a bearing on depth of sowing. If a variety is sown deeper than the natural growth extension of the coleoptile then the seedling may not emerge. Most current varieties are derived from so called semi-dwarf lines which have shorter stems and shorter coleoptiles than older varieties.
Pulses, oilseed crops and barley offer disease breaks for many wheat diseases and indeed differing genetic backgrounds of wheat varieties sometimes allow wheat to be sown in consecutive years. Incorporation of disease resistances into wheat has also virtually eliminated some diseases, such as cereal cyst nematode, and allowed more frequent sowing of wheat.
Recent experience has demonstrated the benefit of sowing a portion of the crop dry if a seasonal break has not been received by late April. These crops germinate rapidly when rain falls and generally make the best use of limited growing season rainfall.
Crops should be monitored to gauge early crop growth: emergence, seedling density, weed population, presence of insects and disease and general crop health. All these factors impinge on the potential grain yield. Records of rainfall received and soil water to maximum rooting depth at sowing and harvest will allow the farmer to assess the WUE (water use efficiency) of the crop.
This Agriculture Note gives an overview of those principles.
Growing Wheat Note Number: AG0548 Published: July 1996 Updated: July 2012 Wheat is the most important cereal grain in world commerce. The framework for all winter crop production in
PAMMENTER, N.W.; BERJAK, P.; FARRANT, J.M.; SMITH, M.T.; ROSS, G. Why do stored hydrated recalcitrant seeds die? Seed Science Research, v.4, p.187-191, 1994. [ Links ]
Recebido para publicação em 15/07/98
Aceito para publicação em 03/08/98
KOSTER, K.L. Glass formation and desiccation tolerance in seeds. Plant Physiology, v.96, p.302-304, 1991. [ Links ]
BARTELS, D.; SINGH, M.; SALAMINI, F. Onset of desiccation tolerance during development of the barley embryo. Planta, v.175, p.485-492, 1988. [ Links ]
At 1993, there was first Brazilian recalcitrant seed workshop and seed recalcitrant technical committee of Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes (ABRATES) ¾ Brazilian Association of Seed Technology was born at VIII Brazilian Seed Congress. This committee had the duty to find researchers who study recalcitrant seeds in Brazil and to produce a newsletter for technical information which also contained event calendars, members participation in these events, post-graduation courses, thesis about this theme, studentships, works and members of this committee.
At 60’s and 70’s other works were performed with Brazilian species like Araucaria angustifolia, Inga edulis e Theobroma cacao (Prange, 1964; Zink & Rochelle, 1964). At 70’s, there was Ph.D. thesis about Araucaria angustifolia recalcitrant seeds (germination and seedling development).
IIDA, Y.; WATABE, K.; KAMADA, H.; HARADA, H. Effects of abscisic acid on the induction of desiccation tolerance in carrot somatic embryos. Journal of Plant Physiology, v.140, p.356-360, 1992. [ Links ]
FARRANT, J.M.; PAMMENTER, N.W.; BERJAK, P. The increasing desiccation sensitivity of recalcitrant Avicennia marina seeds with storage time. Physiologia Plantarum, v.67, p.291-298, 1986. [ Links ]
MUNDY, J.; CHUA, N. Abscisic acid and water- stress induce the expression of a novel rice gene. The EMBO Journal, v.7, p.2279-2268, 1988. [ Links ]
Sensible seeds research chemicals Evolution of research on recalcitrant seeds C.J. Barbedo; D.A.C. Bilia Instituto de Botânica/Seção de Sementes e Melhoramento Vegetal, C.P. 4005, CEP: