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difference between genotype and phenotype

It’s hard to provide concrete examples of genotype. The term just means “the genes a particular organism has.” Any example of a genotype would just be a chart of a particular living thing’s chromosomes, or DNA molecules responsible for various genetic traits. However, having certain genes does have observable results.

An organism’s genotype is the set of genes in its DNA responsible for a particular trait.
An organism’s phenotype is the physical expression of those genes.

Or suppose you have brown eyes. The visible eye color is your phenotype, but it tells us nothing about your genotype. Multiple different genes affect eye color in humans, and any of them could manifest dominant or recessive traits in your phenotype – that is, the unique shade of brown in your eyes.
For example, if you met someone with albinism you would know they most likely have a mutated TYR gene, because that’s the most common cause of albinism. That mutated TYR gene is part of their genotype. Albinism is part of their phenotype.
Genotype and phenotype are two fundamental terms in the science of genetics. The two terms are often used at the same time to describe the same organism, but there is a difference between genotype and phenotype:
How does genotype affect phenotype? Simple. Genotype is the collection of genes responsible for the various genetic traits of a given organism. Genotype refers specifically to the genes, not the traits; that is, the raw information in an organism’s DNA.
Genotype simply means what alleles are carried in a particular organism’s DNA. It can’t be determined by simple observation; it requires biological testing. Genotype is inherited from an organism’s parents and expresses all of the genetic information about it.

For example, two mice that look virtually identical could have different genotypes. But if they have visibly different traits – say, one has white fur and the other has black fur – then they have different phenotypes.

Genotype refers to the genes responsible for a trait, phenotype is the visible result of those genes, as these examples of genotype and phenotype will demonstrate.

Difference between genotype and phenotype

The phenotype is the physical appearance of an organism, while the Genotype is the genetic composition of an organism. Phenotype is observable and are the expression of the genes of an individual. So even the organism with the same species may differ, with a minute difference in their genotype. This is the main difference between the two.

Upcoming points will be focussing on the essential difference between the two terms;
The observable characteristics of an organism, which are the consequence of the genotype (the genetic material) and the environment are known as the phenotype. These are morphological features like colour, shape, size, behaviour and other biochemical properties.

Genotype and phenotype are the two very closely related and similar-sounding words, but their meaning is different. Our earth has a dynamic variety of organisms, present in soil, water and on land. But as the genome of each organism is different, and so there phenotypes also whether it’s their colour, height, weight or other morphological features. In this content, we tried to explain the point on which they differ along with a brief description.

  1. Genotype consists of the hereditary information of an organism, in the form of the gene in the DNA and remain the same throughout life. On the contrary, phenotype describes the visible characteristics, which are the expression of the genes, but these characters change with the period like the stage from infant to adult.
  2. Genotype consist of the hereditary characters of the organisms, which may or may not get expressed in the next generation. The same genotype produces the same phenotype in a particular environment, but in the case of phenotype, characters are not inherited. Thus we can say that the same phenotypes may or may not belong to the same genotype.
  3. Genotype represent the genetic material and so present in the cells of a body, sometimes different genotype may also produce similar produce phenotype, like for example RR and Rr produce the same black eye colour as the dominating allele is R and the recessive allele is r. But in the case of phenotype, even a small difference in phenotype will have different genotype, and they are recognised outside the body as the physical appearance.
  4. A genotype is partly inherited from an individual to the offspring as one of the two alleles, during the reproduction process. The phenotype is the expression of the genetic trait of the parent, but they are not inherited.
  5. Physical characters like height, hair colour, eye colour, body shape, etc. can be determined by observing the organism, but genetic characters are identified by using scientific tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which are helpful in finding out the kind of genes on the allele.

We can notice one’s hair colour, eye colour, height, weight, skin colour, etc. but cannot look at genes responsible for these characters, so the observable physical look is the phenotype while the unnoticed genes responsible for such characters present in the DNA of cell of the individual is genotype.
The term was coined by the Danish botanist and geneticist Wilhelm Johannsen, which means the genetic makeup of an individual and contributing in the phenotype or physical characters. The genotype is among one of the three factors of which determines the phenotype of an organism, the other two are environmental factors and the other inherited epigenetic factors.
Though it is not compulsory that the same genotype will get expressed in the next generation, they may get variate or modified due to the environment and other conditions. For example, there is a slight difference in all organisms even if they belong to the same species.

To explain the above lines, here is the simple example of a pure red colour flowering plant (RR) is crossed with the white colour flowering plant (rr). The result of the Genotype of the F1 generation will be – Rr (Hybrid red colour), and the Phenotype of the F1 generation will be the – Red colour flowering plant.

Genotype is the genetic composition of an organism while the phenotype is the physical appearance of an organism. Phenotype are observable and are the expression of the genes of an individual.