Learn how marijuana and drugs derived from the marijuana plant can affect cancer-related symptoms. Effect of combining CBD with standard breast cancer therapeutics Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Sixty-five percent of breast cancers are estrogen and/or Onyx + Rose believes in the therapeutic benefits of pure, high-quality CBD products for everyone. But, as a company, we are particularly focused on how our products can meet the needs of active, modern women. We make our products with a sense of purity, gentleness, and honesty that we learned from the women in our […]
Marijuana and Cancer
Marijuana is the name given to the dried buds and leaves of varieties of the Cannabis sativa plant, which can grow wild in warm and tropical climates throughout the world and be cultivated commercially. It goes by many names, including pot, grass, cannabis, weed, hemp, hash, marihuana, ganja, and dozens of others.
Marijuana has been used in herbal remedies for centuries. Scientists have identified many biologically active components in marijuana. These are called cannabinoids. The two best studied components are the chemicals delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (often referred to as THC), and cannabidiol (CBD). Other cannabinoids are being studied.
At this time, the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) lists marijuana and its cannabinoids as Schedule I controlled substances. This means that they cannot legally be prescribed, possessed, or sold under federal law. Whole or crude marijuana (including marijuana oil or hemp oil) is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any medical use. But the use of marijuana to treat some medical conditions is legal under state laws in many states.
Dronabinol, a pharmaceutical form of THC, and a man-made cannabinoid drug called nabilone are approved by the FDA to treat some conditions.
Types of marijuana compounds
Different compounds in marijuana have different actions in the human body. For example, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) seems to cause the “high” reported by marijuana users, and also can help relieve pain and nausea, reduce inflammation, and can act as an antioxidant. Cannabidiol (CBD) can help treat seizures, can reduce anxiety and paranoia, and can counteract the “high” caused by THC.
Different cultivars (strains or types) and even different crops of marijuana plants can have varying amounts of these and other active compounds. This means that marijuana can have different effects based on the strain used.
The effects of marijuana also vary depending on how marijuana compounds enter the body. The most common ways to use marijuana are in food (edible marijuana) and by smoking or vaping it (inhaled marijuana):
- Edible marijuana: When taken by mouth, such as when it’s used in cooking oils, drinks (beer, tea, vodka, soda), baked goods (biscuits, brownies, cookies), and candy, the THC is absorbed poorly and can take hours to be absorbed. Once it’s absorbed, it’s processed by the liver, which produces a second psychoactive compound (a substance that acts on the brain and changes mood or consciousness) that affects the brain differently than THC. It’s important to know that the amount of THC in foods that have had marijuana added to them is often unknown and getting too much THC might cause symptoms of overdose.
- Inhaled marijuana: When marijuana is smoked or vaporized, THC enters the bloodstream and goes to the brain quickly. The second psychoactive compound is produced in small amounts, and so has less effect. The effects of inhaled marijuana fade faster than marijuana taken by mouth.
How can marijuana affect symptoms of cancer?
A number of small studies of smoked marijuana found that it can be helpful in treating nausea and vomiting from cancer chemotherapy.
A few studies have found that inhaled (smoked or vaporized) marijuana can be helpful treatment of neuropathic pain (pain caused by damaged nerves).
Smoked marijuana has also helped improve food intake in HIV patients in studies.
There are no studies in people of the effects of marijuana oil or hemp oil.
Studies have long shown that people who took marijuana extracts in clinical trials tended to need less pain medicine.
More recently, scientists reported that THC and other cannabinoids such as CBD slow growth and/or cause death in certain types of cancer cells growing in lab dishes. Some animal studies also suggest certain cannabinoids may slow growth and reduce spread of some forms of cancer.
There have been some early clinical trials of cannabinoids in treating cancer in humans and more studies are planned. While the studies so far have shown that cannabinoids can be safe in treating cancer, they do not show that they help control or cure the disease.
Relying on marijuana alone as treatment while avoiding or delaying conventional medical care for cancer may have serious health consequences.
Possible harmful effects of marijuana
Marijuana can also pose some harms to users. While the most common effect of marijuana is a feeling of euphoria (“high”), it also can lower the user’s control over movement, cause disorientation, and sometimes cause unpleasant thoughts or feelings of anxiety and paranoia.
Smoked marijuana delivers THC and other cannabinoids to the body, but it also delivers harmful substances to users and those close by, including many of the same substances found in tobacco smoke.
Because marijuana plants come in different strains with different levels of active compounds, it can make each user’s experience very hard to predict. The effects can also differ based on how deeply and for how long the user inhales. Likewise, the effects of ingesting marijuana orally can vary between people. Also, some chronic users can develop an unhealthy dependence on marijuana.
There are chemically pure drugs based on marijuana compounds that have been approved in the US for medical use.
- Dronabinol (Marinol®/Syndros®) is a medicine containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy as well as weight loss and poor appetite in patients with AIDS.
- Nabilone (Cesamet®) is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts much like THC. It can be taken by mouth to treat nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy when other drugs have not worked.
Nabiximols is a cannabinoid drug still under study in the US. It’s a mouth spray made up of a whole-plant extract with THC and cannabidiol (CBD) in an almost one to one mix. It’s available in Canada and parts of Europe to treat pain linked to cancer, as well as muscle spasms and pain from multiple sclerosis (MS). It’s not approved in the US at this time, but it’s being tested in clinical trials to see if it can help a number of conditions.
How can cannabinoid drugs affect symptoms of cancer?
Based on a number of studies, dronabinol can be helpful for reducing nausea and vomiting linked to chemotherapy.
Dronabinol has also been found to help improve food intake and prevent weight loss in patients with HIV. In studies of cancer patients, though, it wasn’t better than placebo or another drug (megestrol acetate).
Nabiximols has shown promise for helping people with cancer pain that’s unrelieved by strong pain medicines, but it hasn’t been found to be helpful in every study done. Research is still being done on this drug.
Side effects of cannabinoid drugs
Like many other drugs, the prescription cannabinoids, dronabinol and nabilone, can cause side effects and complications.
Some people have trouble with increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure (especially when standing up), dizziness or lightheadedness, and fainting. These drugs can cause drowsiness as well as mood changes or a feeling of being “high” that some people find uncomfortable. They can also worsen depression, mania, or other mental illness. Some patients taking nabilone in studies reported hallucinations. The drugs may increase some effects of sedatives, sleeping pills, or alcohol, such as sleepiness and poor coordination. Patients have also reported problems with dry mouth and trouble with recent memory.
Older patients may have more problems with side effects and are usually started on lower doses.
People who have had emotional illnesses, paranoia, or hallucinations may find their symptoms are worse when taking cannabinoid drugs.
Talk to your doctor about what you should expect when taking one of these drugs. It’s a good idea to have someone with you when you first start taking one of these drugs and after any dose changes.
What does the American Cancer Society say about the use of marijuana in people with cancer?
The American Cancer Society supports the need for more scientific research on cannabinoids for cancer patients, and recognizes the need for better and more effective therapies that can overcome the often debilitating side effects of cancer and its treatment. The Society also believes that the classification of marijuana as a Schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Administration imposes numerous conditions on researchers and deters scientific study of cannabinoids. Federal officials should examine options consistent with federal law for enabling more scientific study on marijuana.
Medical decisions about pain and symptom management should be made between the patient and their doctor, balancing evidence of benefit and harm to the patient, the patient’s preferences and values, and any laws and regulations that may apply.
The American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network (ACS CAN), the Society’s advocacy affiliate, has not taken a position on legalization of marijuana for medical purposes because of the need for more scientific research on marijuana’s potential benefits and harms. However, ACS CAN opposes the smoking or vaping of marijuana and other cannabinoids in public places because the carcinogens in marijuana smoke pose numerous health hazards to the patient and others in the patient’s presence.
Effect of combining CBD with standard breast cancer therapeutics
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Sixty-five percent of breast cancers are estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive. Estrogen receptor expression is a prognostic and predictive biomarker of response to endocrine therapy, which consists of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, and the selective estrogen receptor degrader fulvestrant. Cannabidiol is a phytocannabinoid that is emerging as a potential therapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cannabidiol on estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative representative breast cancer cell lines in combination with standard therapeutic agents used in clinical practice. To compare the effects of cannabidiol on breast cancer cell viability, cancer cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of cannabidiol. The effects of cannabidiol in combination with the endocrine therapeutics tamoxifen, fulvestrant, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor palbociclib on breast cancer cell viability were examined. We demonstrated that cannabidiol dose-dependently decreased the viability of all breast cancer cell lines independent of estrogen receptor expression. The addition of cannabidiol to tamoxifen had an additive negative effect on cell viability in ER+ in estrogen receptor positive T-47D line. Cannabidiol did not attenuate the effect of standard treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer with fulvestrant and palbociclib. In addition, cannabidiol did not attenuate the effect of standard treatment of triple-negative breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive breast cancer cell lines with trastuzumab and cisplatin.
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CBD and Breast Cancer
Onyx + Rose believes in the therapeutic benefits of pure, high-quality CBD products for everyone. But, as a company, we are particularly focused on how our products can meet the needs of active, modern women. We make our products with a sense of purity, gentleness, and honesty that we learned from the women in our lives, and we’re particularly interested in issues of women’s wellness.
IT’S PINK SEASON
October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. And all those pink ribbons you see are bringing attention to a crucial issue. As women’s health issues go, breast cancer immediately comes to mind for many. In 2019, an estimated 268,600 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in women in the U.S. (along with 62,930 new cases of non-invasive breast cancer.) In fact, it’s the most common cancer among American women. One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. While modern medicine has made many advances when it comes to treating and preventing breast cancer, the potential for CBD oil to supplement traditional treatments is only just being explored.
SCIENCE SAYS THIS IS WORTH A TRY
There’s still a lot of research that needs to happen when it comes to CBD. But as a society, we’ve made tremendous progress in the last few years in regards to our attitude towards hemp. We’ve rounded up recent and noteworthy research regarding CBD and breast cancer.
According to the National Cancer Institute, research indicates that CBD may slow the growth or reduce the risk of recurrence of certain kinds of cancers, including breast cancer. It may enhance the potency of certain medications; and reduce chemotherapy side effects, including vomiting, nausea, and anxiety. Keep in mind, all these studies are limited, and experts agree that further research is needed to understand how CBD affects humans undergoing chemotherapy.
While clinical research into its efficacy is still getting off the ground, scientists and people who CBD has worked for agree that the compound merits further investigation. A 2017 World Health Organization report stated CBD may have antitumor effects, and that “CBD may have therapeutic benefits,” for a list of ailments, including cancer. The report went on to note “antiproliferative and anti-invasive actions in a large range of cancer types; induction of autophagy-mediated cancer cell death; chemopreventive effects.” If you don’t have your medical degree, what it means is that CBD may have a potentially important role to play in cancer therapy for some.
WHILE WE WAIT FOR THE SCIENCE, WHAT ELSE DO WE KNOW?
We learn more every day about the benefits of CBD oil. Let’s dive into the findings so far that focus on CBD and breast cancer.
CBD may play a role in inhibiting tumor growth. In a 2006 study, CBD inhibited breast cancer tumor growth in rats. “Both cannabidiol and the cannabidiol-rich extract inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors.” (AKA tumors grown in lab rats).
CBD may have an effect that mimics chemotherapy. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics reported in 2011, “an intricate interplay between apoptosis and autophagy in CBD-treated breast cancer cells and highlighted the value of continued investigation into the potential use of CBD as an antineoplastic agent.” Put simply, it looks like CBD may be making a positive impact, so let’s keep studying it to make sure.
CBD may potentially control aggressive breast cancer cells according to Breast Cancer Research and Treatment in a study published in August 2011. The study found that sought after “therapeutic interventions for aggressive and metastatic breast cancers,” since there are limited options available, and they declared CBD an “effective, targeted, and nontoxic” therapy. A 2017 study in the Journal of Natural Medicines found CBD to have similar effects in cases of “highly aggressive breast cancer,” but suggested further research.
Of all the available breast cancer treatments, CBD may be the first nontoxic option. A study from Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (2007) reported that “CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells leading to the down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness.”
CBDA is a precursor to CBD, and has been shown to inhibit tumors. According to a Japanese study from 2014: “CBDA is an inhibitor of highly aggressive human breast cancer cell migration.”
You already know: Traditional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation come along with all kinds of side effects: nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, etc. Research suggests cannabinoids may ease the neuropathic pain, nausea, and poor appetite cancer (and cancer treatment) can bring on, not to mention, CBD’s noted anti-inflammatory and anti-anxiety properties.
AN IMPORTANT NOTE:
That’s an awful lot of positive findings, and hopefully, human clinical trials will be conducted in the U.S. soon. Since CBD is nontoxic and rarely has side effects, it may be worth a try in the meantime. As with any treatment regimen, you should, of course, discuss this with your physician. It’s important to remember that anything you ingest (dietary supplements and herbal remedies included) could potentially interfere with chemotherapy treatment, so be especially mindful if you’re undergoing treatment. When in doubt, discuss your CBD options with your oncologist and medical team to determine the best course of action.
OUR 2019 INITIATIVE: WE WALK THE WALK (AND BACK UP THOSE WHO WALK WITH US.
This year, a group of us at Onyx + Rose asked ourselves, “What can we do?” We believe in this cause passionately and wanted to show our support in a way that went beyond buying a quick shoutout on social media.
So, we teamed up with Making Strides Against Breast Cancer and donated over 750 CBD Spa Gift Sets for their annual walk event.
Our broad spectrum CBD beauty products, including Botanic Bombs, are an excellent way to soothe sore muscles, reduce pain and inflammation, and relieve stress, whether you have breast cancer yourself or are a tireless supporter who deserves a little break. It’s just our way of sharing the healing power of hemp with a group of strong women who we felt would benefit the most from incorporating our spa kit into their wellness ritual.
YOU’VE GOT THIS. AND WE’VE GOT YOU.
Research. Studies. Doctors. Technology. That is all a part of the breast cancer journey. But true healing comes from a holistic approach that treats the body and mind as one. A treatment regimen that includes CBD oil is a holistic approach to treating the whole person. Onyx + Rose believes that thoughtfully including broad and full spectrum CBD products into a wellness routine may help those dealing with breast cancer achieve a more comfortable outcome and a greater sense of well-being on their way back to wellness.
While we wait for the hard science to come in, early reports and the testimonials of many seem to indicate that CBD may play an active role in both promoting the efficacy of some breast cancer treatments or at least reducing the side effects. Without a doubt, our long relationship with customers has affirmed its powerful effects in stress relief, the reduction of inflammation, and the support of overall health and well-being.
If you or a loved one is dealing with a breast cancer diagnosis, know that Onyx + Rose is there for you with our sincere support, and hopefully, any measure of comfort or relief that CBD products can offer.